Great Awakening II

Lead: During the early 1700s in America, the First Great Awakening, a religious revival, had profound effect on American Protestantism and in part paved the way for the American Revolution.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Jonathan Edwards was born in East Windsor Connecticut in 1703. A precocious youth, he entered Yale at the age of 13 graduating in 1720. Eventually he made his way to the Congregational church in Northhampton, Massachusetts, where he understudied with his maternal grandfather and at the older minister’s death in 1729, succeeded him. A brief outburst of religious ferment at Northhampton in 1734 slowly began to spread throughout the Connecticut Valley. It was intensified in the 1740s through the itinerant preaching of Edwards, others of like mind, and especially the Anglican evangelist George Whitefield. The latter’s preaching to vast crowds in open air meetings throughout the colonies helped spread the religious enthusiasm.

 

 

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Polio II

Lead: 1916 marked the beginning of a polio epidemic in the United States that would not end until 1955. It did so as one of the major medical success stories of the twentieth century.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Polio, poliomyelitis, also known as infantile paralysis, is a viral infection of the intestinal tract that sometimes can attack the central nervous system and lead to severe muscular paralysis. After the 1916 outbreak, the United States averaged 21,000 paralytic cases per year. During the 1930s and 1940s both private and government research was accelerated to try to find a cure for this dreaded disease. The National Foundation of Infantile Paralysis, now the March of Dimes, was inaugurated by FDR in 1938 for the purpose of raising money, one dime at a time, to fund polio research. Americans waited with not a great deal of patience for a breakthrough.

 

 

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Polio I

Lead: Summertime in 1930s and 1940s was exciting for children out of school, but a time of fear as well. Parents were worried their children might contract polio.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Poliomyelitis is a viral infection of the intestinal tract. Most cases of polio were mild, headache, fever, sore throat, depression; the patient usually recovers within three or four days. In fewer and more serious cases, the virus penetrates the stomach and intestinal tract, enters the lymphatic system, then the bloodstream and then attacks the motor nerve cells of the spinal cord; if the nerve damage is severe, paralysis will result. Occurring most frequently in children, polio is also known as infantile paralysis.

 

 

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Civil War Women Spies IV

Lead: By June 1862 Civil War Memphis, Tennessee was occupied by the Union. Young Belle Edmondson began her life as a smuggler and Confederate spy.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Belle Edmondson was born in Pontotoc, Mississippi, in 1840, the youngest of eight children. At the onset of the Civil War in 1861, the Edmondsons were living on a farm just southeast of Memphis near the Mississippi border. Although there were some strongholds of Union sentiment particularly in eastern Tennessee, the state had joined the Confederacy. The Edmondsons were staunch supporters of the southern cause. Two of Belle’s brothers fought at Shiloh and Belle helped nurse the wounded from the battle

 

 

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Civil War Women Spies V

Lead: During the American Civil War, socialite Elizabeth Van Lew ran a Union spy ring in the capital of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Elizabeth Van Lew was a southern girl, born in Richmond, in 1818, the daughter of a wealthy family with connections and kin in the north. Van Lew was educated in Philadelphia and returned home a vigorous and keen abolitionist. During the 1850s she convinced her family to free their slaves and at the outbreak of hostilities remained loyal loyal to the Union. She committed herself to do whatever she could to support the Federal cause.

 

 

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Civil War Women Spies III

Lead: Civil War Union spy Sarah Emma Edmonds spent a good part of her life disguised as a man. In the Army she often disguised her disguise.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Although women were not permitted to enlist as soldiers in either army during the Civil War, perhaps as many as 400 did so, by bending their gender. In April 1861 Sarah Emma Edmonds, after four attempts, finally was able to enlist in Flint, Michigan as a male volunteer, Private Frank Thompson.

Edmonds was born in Nova Scotia in 1841. She ran away from an unfortunate home situation as young girl and at the outbreak of the war, was living in Flint, working as bookseller, disguised as a man, using the name Frank Thompson. After Fort Sumter, she continued the transgender role, after four attempts enlisted, and served as a male nurse and occasionally as a spy.

 

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Civil War Women Spies II

Lead: In the summer of 1861 Washington hostess Rose Greenhow helped the infant Confederacy win the First Battle of Manasas at Bull Run Creek.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Rose O’Neal Greenhow was born to a slaveholding family in southern Maryland in 1817. As a young woman, she moved to Washington City to live with her aunt who ran a boarding house in the Old Capitol Building. She earned the nickname “Wild Rose” because of her subtle mind and biting tongue. Charming, intelligent, and witty, Rose entertained frequently and cultivated friendships with some of the most powerful political figures of her time – John C. Calhoun, James Buchanan and William Seward. Rose became one of the most popular and captivating figures in Washington’s antebellum society.

 

 

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Civil War Women Spies I

Lead: Of the many roles women played during the American Civil War, the most dangerous, daring and deadly was spying.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Espionage, someone has said, is the “second oldest profession.” It certainly has been a part of every major war in history. Of the thousands who engaged in spying during the American Civil War, among the most famous were women. It was a time when Union and Confederate women were called upon to take on many tasks theretofore considered unconventional – farming, nursing, factory work or office management. For the adventurous few there was spying. Civil War women spies were amateurs often motivated by fervent regional patriotism. Most of the time they worked alone, but occasionally as in the case of Elizabeth Van Lew were part of a team or spy “ring.” Women served as informants, smugglers, couriers, or guides.

 

 

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