Modern Middle Eastern Map III

Lead: In 1990 Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. He justified this because he claimed his small neighbor was a creation of the British after World War I. He neglected to say that so was Iraq.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: During the war, to protect its colonial lifeline in the Middle East and with millions of troops tied down in the trenches of Europe, Britain encouraged rival Arab clans to attack Turkish forces in Arabia, Palestine and Syria. They recruited Emir, later King, Husayn ibn Ali, of the Hejas, the western region of the Arabian peninsula, Husayn’s sons, Abdullah and Faisal, and Ibn Saud the bitter rival of the Husayn family whose Bedouin warriors boiled out of the Arabian heartland to attack Turks and Arab alike. To each Britain made promises of territory carved from the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, to secure Jewish help in the war against Germany, in 1917 British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour expressed support for a Zionist homeland in Palestine.

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Modern Middle Eastern Map II

Lead: It is possible that the Middle East might have avoided becoming embroiled in the First World War had it not been for the scheming of Enver Pasha.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.            

Content: Despite internal weakness, the Ottoman Empire, which for centuries prior to 1900 had dominated a large part of Middle East, still ruled at least nominally upward of twenty million people in the Balkans, Turkey, Palestine and Transjordan. Yet, the many problems and persistent conservatism of the Empire had generated efforts at reform and occasional revolts. The most significant rebellion came in 1908 led by a secret society within the Army known as the Young Turks. One of the organizers of the Young Turk Revolution was Enver Pasha. Coming from meager origins, Enver joined the Young Turks as an apprentice officer and in 1913 led the coup d’état that restored his party to power. He became Ottoman Minister of War in 1914 and just before the outbreak of hostilities in Europe secured a secret treaty with the Germans.

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Modern Middle Eastern Map I

Lead: After centuries of domination, by the twentieth century, the Ottoman Empire’s amazing long grip on power in the Middle East was slipping.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the 1300s there emerged from Bithynia a province in what it now northwestern Turkey, an alliance of fierce warrior clans led by Osman, a local prince of considerable leadership ability. He began the absorption of nearby territory and founded a dynasty that took its name from the Arabic form of his name, uthman or Ottoman. After centuries of almost constant expansion, the Ottoman Empire at its height stretched from the gates of Vienna to the Persian Gulf, south to Egypt and west to Tripoli. By their military power and administrative genius the Ottoman Turks to a certain degree imposed a form of control over this region, widely diverse as it was in language, religion and culture. Such control, however was short lived. After the death of the greatest of the Ottoman sultans, Suleyman I in 1566, decline began. Internal economic problems and factional disputes accelerated the Empire’s weakness so that by 1900, while it governed in excess of 20 million people, in the words of essayist David Fromkin, its rule was more imaginary than real.

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Cesar Chavez

Lead: In the 1970s few public figures ignited the level of conflicting emotions on labor and social issues than farm work organizer Cesar Chavez.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Itinerant farm workers are often a forgotten part of the American political economy. Forming no organized constituency on which politicians can depend, they move from place to place following the crops to be harvest. These workers often are temporary U.S. residents, occupy the lowest segment of the laboring class, live and work in meager circumstances and are willing, sometimes happy, to work for very low wages. In the 1960s, a time of social and political ferment, farm workers found a champion in the person of Cesar Chavez.

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The Declaration of the Rights of Man II

Lead: Believing women should be included in the concepts of freedom and equality of the French Revolution, Gouges published a document that would prove to be too revolutionary even for the French Revolution, The Declaration of Rights of Woman and Citizen.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Olympe de Gouges was born in 1748, the daughter of a butcher and a washerwoman. After the death of her older and wealthy husband, de Gouges had funds to help support herself and was able to work as a playwright and then a writer of political pamphlets during the French Revolution. A vigorous feminist, she championed controversial political and social causes such as the rights of illegitimate children and single mothers, the right to seek divorce, national education, and the building of better roads and maternity hospitals.

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The Declaration of the Rights of Man I

Lead: During the French Revolution, the National Assembly adopted  one of the most important documents in political history – The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the summer of 1789, during the first year of the French Revolution, deputies of the Third Estate, the branch of the Estates-General, which represented the vast majority of French citizens, defying King Louis XVI, declared themselves to be the National Assembly. Shortly after the storming of the Bastille by the mobs of Paris, the Assembly formally adopted a series of revolutionary principles  called the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

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Elisabeth Vigee LeBrun

Lead: In 1778, young French portrait painter Elisabeth Vigee LeBrun was summoned to Versailles to become the court painter of one of the most fascinating figures of French history—Queen Marie Antoinette.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Marie Louise Elizabeth Vigee LeBrun was born in Paris in 1755. She received art lessons from her father. She was largely self-taught at a time when female artists were denied admittance to art academies. By age fifteen, Vigee LeBrun had demonstrated such skill that she able to help support her widowed mother and brother. At the age of 20, at the insistence of her mother, Vigee LeBrun married their landlord, Jean Baptise Pierre LeBrun, an art dealer and artist. By copying many of the fine works around her, she later recalled that she “received the best lessons I could have attained.”

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau II

Lead: Accepted as a part of the brilliant literary and cultural society of Paris in the mid-1700s, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, however, never felt quite at home.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: His early youth, spent in one of Geneva’s upper class families, was disrupted by his mother’s death and father’s exile. The resulting social come down gave Rousseau a life-long sense of insecurity and hunger for approval from the wealthy and well-connected. After his 1742 arrival in Paris Rousseau gravitated to the leading intellectual figures of the city cultivating a friendship with many such as the Encyclopedist, Denis Diderot. He soon, however, broke with them over the question of progress. In A Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, begun in late 1753, Rousseau describes primitive man in his idyllic state, basically good in the moral sense, free of the cumbersome burdens of modern society - culture, government, education, even family - here truly was uncorrupted man, the noble savage.

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