Science Matters: Fritz Haber and the Nitrogen Cycle- I

Lead: By 1900 world population was beginning to outstrip agricultural capacity. Farmers could not grow enough to feed the people. Then Fritz Haber solved the nitrogen problem.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The three main nutrients required for successfully growing plants are potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Good top soil contains them in sufficient amounts to grow crops, but after long use, soil becomes depleted of these ingredients and must be renewed. Potassium and phosphorus are economically available in sufficient quantities to be put back easily, but nitrogen is not. Nitrogen is in the air. It is a gas that is a large part of the atmosphere. Getting it into the soil for plant synthesis is very difficult. Traditional farmers added plant clippings and animal waste, rotated crops or planted legumes such as beans or lintels, so-called green manure, to restore the soil and increase yields. Traditional agriculture could not keep up with an exploding world’s population. Farmers were losing the battle.

 

Abolition I

Lead: Of all the questions left unresolved by the founders of the United States none had more long-term and ultimately fatal consequences than that of human bondage, slavery.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Slavery has been found in both primitive and modern societies. Even in Western civilization, the institution was accepted by both ancient Greeks and Romans.  Even early Christianity did not directly oppose slavery although that religion helped broker economic changes the transformed the agricultural slave culture into that of medieval serfdom in the years following the fall of the Roman Empire.

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Christianity and Islam – III

Lead: For many Muslims, jihad represents an internal spiritual struggle. For others it is a fight against evil, with the mouth, the pen, the hand and the sword. Over the centuries, this created unavoidable conflict with Christianity.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Theologian Charles Kimball points out that one of the tragic misplaced tendencies in religion today is to compare the ideal of one's religion with the worst behavior of other faiths. Yet, much of the conflict in today's world arises out of the conviction of certain proponents of Islam that violent, even terrorist activity against unbelievers is justified.  It is defended as being taught in the Qur’an and permitted by the Prophet Mohammed. This arises in part from the Islamic world view and a complex seemingly contradictory presentation of jihad in the Qur’an.

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Christianity and Islam – II

Lead: The founder of Islam saw a world in which all people and all parts of life would be in submission to God. This brought Muhammad and his followers into frequent and often violent confrontation with Christianity.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Muhammad, first prophet of Islam, was a member of the Hashim, a prominent commercial clan in Mecca, a city in the Arabian heartland. His spiritual journey came to crisis on the 17th day of the Arabic month of Ramadan in 610. According to Islamic tradition he was taken in a mystic journey by the angel Jabril, Gabriel, to Jerusalem where he conversed with Jesus, Moses, and Abraham, was taken to heaven and received the divinely inspired message that eventually was recorded in the Qur’an.

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Christianity and Islam – I

Lead: Daily headlines confirm an ongoing conflict between Islam and Judaism, less noted is the centuries old struggle between Islam and the other part of the so-called Sons of Abraham, Christianity.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: At the center of tension between the three great religions that see him as their founder is the enigmatic character of Abraham. His willingness to sacrifice comfort and security, reject the multiple gods of his ancestors, and answer the call of a single deity forms the foundation of the three great monotheistic religions, the people of the Book, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Despite their common lineage  by the two sons of Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael, and many common beliefs and practices, peace between these faiths often has been the exception rather than the rule.

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Jamestown Journey – Indentured Service

Lead: In the early years of the colony Virginia filled its voracious tobacco fields with workers and population through the institution  of indentured servitude.

            Intro.: Dan Roberts and 'A Moment in Time,' with 'Jamestown - Journey of Democracy,' tracing the global advance of democratic ideals since the founding of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.

            Content: John Upton arrived in Virginia in 1622. Though he was basically penniless when he entered the colony, within fifteen years he was one of the leading citizens of Isle of Wight County across the James River from Jamestown. He was enterprising and not afraid of hard work.

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Jamestown Journey: Native American Democracy III

Lead: In the 1980s a group of scholars suggested that Native Americans might have had a part in shaping American government. Academic war followed. 

                Intro.: Dan Roberts and 'A Moment in Time,' with 'Jamestown - Journey of Democracy,' tracing the global advance of democratic ideals since the founding of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.

                Content: The study of history can be a minefield for those who have a new idea. When in the 1980s historians Bruce Johansen, Donald Grinde and Barbara Mann began to suggest that Native American concepts and practices, specifically the Great Law of the Haudenosaunee (ho dee noe sho nee), the Iroquois Alliance, may have had some influence on the construct of the new American republic, they found themselves in the center of bitter, scholarly and cultural debate.

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Jamestown Journey: Native American Democracy II

Lead: Among the Founders of the American republic, there was a profound respect for the political and diplomatic accomplishments of the Iroquois Federation.

            Intro.: Dan Roberts and 'A Moment in Time,' with 'Jamestown - Journey of Democracy,' tracing the global advance of democratic ideals since the founding of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.

            Content: Democracy is a fleeting and precious thing. Rule of the people, by the people and for the people has clearly been the exception in a sordid history of monarchies, oligarchies, dictatorships and aristocracies. More often than not men and women have suffered under the rule of their so-called betters.

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