The US and the Holocaust II

Lead: The enormity of the Holocaust only became clear after the war. Yet, Allied leaders knew that to stop it, they had to destroy the Nazis.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After the beginning of World War II, the Jews remaining in Europe were unable to escape. They were caught, and many millions would soon become victims of the grim German death nightmare. It was an instrument so indomitable that even as Hitler was taking the coward’s way out in his suicide bunker, his disciples were still hard at work operating the killing machine.

The US and the Holocaust I

Lead: During the horrific 12 years of the Third Reich, millions of Jews were murdered. Could the United States have done more to stop it?

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: It is hard to reject the judgment of Winston Churchill that the Holocaust “was probably the greatest and most terrible crime ever committed in the whole history of the world.” Faced with such gratuitous, monumental evil, one is tempted to wonder if the forces of moral decency could not have done more to prevent this genocidal slaughter.

Flight of Rudolph Hess

Lead: On May 10, 1941, Adolf Hitler’s Deputy, Rudolf Hess, parachuted onto a Scottish farm after an 800-mile solo flight. It was one of the war’s most bizarre incidents.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Adolf and Rudolf served together in World War I and the latter became one of the Fuehrer’s most devoted followers. In prison with Hitler following the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, Hess took much of Hitler’s dictation for Mein Kampf and, as success attended the Nazi movement, Hess became Hitler’s private secretary and, in 1939, was designated second in line to succeed him.

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Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech II

Lead: In March, 1945 Winston Churchill gave his famous "Iron-Curtain" Speech in Fulton, Missouri. It was not given as an idle gesture.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the days after World War II, the United States began to explore the path of accommodation with the Soviet Union. Under the new President, Harry Truman, and Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, America began to draw away from the British, who were increasingly isolated and under Soviet pressure in the Balkans, Iran and the Mediterranean. Truman was following the course laid out by his predecessor, Franklin Roosevelt, but as 1945 drew to a close, important elements of public opinion began to criticize this policy. Secretary of Defense James Forestall and other military leaders were fearful of Soviet power and expansion and urged the President to a more militant approach to the Russians. This was echoed by certain key Republicans such as Senator Arthur Vandenberg and influential shapers of opinion like Henry R. Luce, publisher of Time Magazine, and the editors of the New York Times.

Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech I

Lead: On March 5, 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill delivered one of the most important speeches in post-World War II history. It signaled the beginning of the Cold War.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: The alliance of necessity between the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union began to show signs of decay with the defeat of Germany in April, 1945. The traditional American isolationism and reluctance to be drawn into permanent foreign entangling alliances was, in the absence of an immediate perceived enemy threat, rearing its head. Americans were tired of war and many were not as fearful of growing Soviet power as were their British cousins. This tended to counter the pressure of those advisors surrounding the new and inexperienced President Truman who would have the United States take vigorous leadership in international affairs. Some close to the President actually advocated closer Soviet/American ties. All of this meant the British felt themselves increasingly out in the cold and under pressure from the Soviets in many places such Iran, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean.

Marie Sklodowska Curie

Lead: Winner of two Nobel prizes, the French physicist Marie Curie, born Maria Sklodowska near Warsaw, Poland, helped advance the understanding of radioactive substances.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Learning was a lifetime passion for Marie Curie. Her parents lived and taught in a private school and as a child she demonstrated a remarkable memory in academic matters but hers was not a purely abstract scholarship. During Maria's childhood, her native Poland could not be found on the maps of eastern Europe. For centuries Polish territory had been parceled out to hostile neighbors and in 1863, due to an abortive revolt, Poland had become little more than a Russian province. The Polish language was suppressed. As a teenager she took part in the secret nationalist "free university" where she taught the Polish language to women workers.

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Nuremberg Trials IV

Lead: In one of history’s longest trials, twenty-two Nazis were tried for crimes against humanity in the heartland of National Socialism, Nuremburg, Germany.

Intro. A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Of the twenty-two original defendants, three were acquitted, seven were sentenced to jail from 10 years to life, and twelve were sentenced to be hanged. Martin Borman, convicted in absentia, escaped the noose, as did Herman Goering, who committed suicide and the most important defendant, the Fuhrer himself, Adolf Hitler. Arthur Gaeth filed this radio report on October 16, 1946.

Nuremberg Trials III

Lead: As the world looked on, the victorious Allies brought to trial Germany's experiment with barbarism. Twenty-two Nazi's were tried for crimes against humanity at Nuremberg.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The trials began on October 18, 1945. The United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union supplied judges for the International Military Tribunal and they heard indictments and testimony in four areas. The defendants were accused of: 1) crimes against peace, in other words they committed aggressive war, 2) crimes against humanity: exterminations, deportations and genocide, 3) war crimes, and 4) that they engaged in a long-term conspiracy to commit the first three.