American Revolution: The Incompetence of King George III III

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: When he was a child, the parents of King George III doted on George’s brother, Edward. This experience created a shy, insecure prince with a rather inflexible personality who had little respect for the opinions of others when they disagreed with his own. His tutor and guide after the age of 17 was John Stuart, Earl of Bute, advisor to George’s mother. Bute suffered the same personal rigidity and reinforced the future king’s already deficient understanding of how people operate, too often getting personal strength confused with intransigence or stubbornness.

American Revolution: The Incompetence of King George III II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: In August 1765, at the height of the Stamp Act crisis, the citizens of Boston waked to a revolting, but all-too-familiar spectacle. Hanging in effigy was Andrew Oliver, appointed by the Crown to collect the hated Stamp Tax. Hanging beside his effigial corpse was a boot out of which was crawling a representation of the devil. This boot was a play on the name of and represented John Stuart, Scottish Earl of Bute, seen as an evil enemy of colonial rights and liberties, in large measure because of what the patriots considered his perverse influence over the young King George.

American Revolution: The Incompetence of King George III I

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: He was the first monarch of his kin to be born in England – Norfolk House, London in 1738 – and the first Hanoverian monarch to speak English. The prince who would become King George III was raised in obscurity by parents who clearly doted on his brother Edward. When he managed to get a word in edge-wise during family conversations he was too often admonished, “Do hold your tongue, George: don’t talk like a fool.” Therefore, the young man who would grow up to command and lose an empire developed into a quiet, shy, modest introvert who loved the British Constitution but only too slowly grew effectively to learn his role as a sovereign in a time of growing crisis.

Taxation – America’s Disdain II

Lead: On February 3, 1913, the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution was adopted – making the income tax a permanent part of life in the United States.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until the Civil War, the United States government relied heavily on tariffs (the taxes on imported goods) for revenue. Although the Constitution prohibited the government from imposing a direct tax on citizens, in 1862, during the Civil War, Congress passed an act which authorized the collection of the income tax in order to help finance a war that was costing the United States treasury one million dollars a day by 1862. With the Republic under threat, resistance to the income tax was not widespread. The wartime emergency income tax was reduced after the war and repealed in 1872.

 

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Taxation – America’s Disdain I

Lead: Since 1913, when the 16th Amendment authorizing the income tax was ratified, Americans have alternately bellowed or whined each year each year at tax time.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Historically, Americans have enjoyed a love/hate relationship with government’s revenues – that is taxes. It was disagreement over taxes imposed by Britain that helped spark the cry for independence in colonial America. “No taxation without representation.” Today, throughout the world, taxes are customarily paid with money. This is a fairly recent method of payment. From ancient times taxes were commonly paid in goods and services, including labor and military service. The most common form of tax in the ancient world and the largest revenue producer was the “tithe,” the giving of a fixed percentage of agricultural produce. Despite this,  collection of taxes were very efficient. Governments have always managed to get their due. Taxes supported the building of temples and monuments, the construction of   infrastructure such as roads and waterworks, they were used to increase of wealth of rulers, and, of course, the most expense thing any government can do, wage war. “Corvee,” or the mandatory contribution of personal labor to the state, was used by ancient Egyptians. It is the earliest form of taxation for which records exist.

 

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History’s Turning Points: America’s Chinese Obsession II

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider one of history’s great turning points – America’s Chiang Kai-Shek obsession.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In a 1927 match made in Chinese political heaven, ambitious General Chiang Kai-Shek, one of the founders of the Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, married Soong May-ling, the sister-in-law of Revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen. Soong was a Christian and was educated in the United States. She attended boarding school in Georgia and Wellesley College. Her personal ties to many Americans, stated inclination toward democratic institutions, and Chiang’s alleged conversion to Christianity won for them extraordinary support in the United States in the 1930s and during World War II. This was despite the clear corruption of his regime and the on-going struggle with the Chinese Communist Party for control. This power couple seemed for many Americans a formidable bulwark in favor of democracy and Christianity and against international Bolshevism and fascist Japan.

History’s Turning Points: America’s Chinese Obsession I

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider one of history’s turning points – America’s Chiang Kai-shek obsession.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: One of the most fascinating diplomatic and personal alliances of the twentieth century was that between the people and government of the United States and Chinese strongman Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his fourth wife Soong May-ling.

Scopes Monkey Trial III

Lead: In the hot summer of 1925 the State of Tennessee prosecuted John Thomas Scopes for teaching the theory of evolution.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: While a believer in evolution, Scopes merely made his students aware of Darwin's theory in the run-up to their end-of-the-year examinations. At stake was the constitutionality of the Butler Act, Tennessee's statute outlawing teaching anything contrary to the Bible.